Hutton Hall park and garden was the creation of Sir Joseph Whitwell Pease who decided to build himself a new estate in 1864. Pease was a member of the well-known Quaker family of industrialists and financiers who were responsible for the development of the railways around Darlington and Middlesbrough as an industrial centre.
Location, Area, Boundaries, Landform and Setting
Hutton Hall lies just north of Hutton village and 1.5 miles (c. 2.5 km) southwest of Guisborough, 7.5 miles (c. 12 km) southeast of Middlesbrough. The historic park and gardens of Hutton Hall at their greatest extent in 1903, covered 737 acres (298 ha).
The northern boundary is formed by the Middlesbrough to Guisborough railway line from NZ 586 151 to NZ 593 147, where it goes north to include the Cottage Plantation and the Avenue, then following the railway line again to NZ 604 148. The eastern boundary goes due south from the railway until it meets Kemplah Wood and then follows the boundary between it and High Bank. It then follows the top of the woods until NZ 608 138. The southern boundary starts at Codhill Plantation and then follows the upper reaches of the plantations to the western extent of Brown’s Intake at NZ 585 131. The western boundary is formed by the western extent of High Bousdale Wood and Whinny Bank.
The underlying bedrock is Redcar Mudstone Formation across the lowland parkland and plantations on the hills next to it, this changes to Cleveland Ironstone Formation on the higher levels. This is overlaid with deposits of uneven sized glacial tills giving rise to slowly permeable, seasonally wet slightly acid but base-rich loamy and clayey soils. Numerous watercourses flow onto the lower ground from the hills above.
Hutton is in the North York Moors National Park Authority’s Landscape Characterisation Area of the Cleveland Foothills. This is characterised by a distinctive, steeply graded escarpment landscape forming an outward facing transition area between the moorland of the Cleveland Hills and lowlands of the Cleveland Plain. The Hutton estate lies just on the boundary between these two areas, with the surrounding hills forming a spectacular ‘borrowed landscape’. Hutton Hall itself is at 116 AOD on a flat piece of ground that then rises sharply to the south from 130m to 180m OD. To the north, it falls slightly to 109 AOD along the former railway line. The whole of the designed landscape detailed in this report is in a Conservation Area.
Entrances and Approaches
Hutton Lodge [Grade II, NHLE 1139781] was built c. 1869 by Alfred Waterhouse from the road leading to Hutton village. The carriageway from the Lodge passes over the beck with the bridge by Waterhouse [Grade II,NHLE 1159585] to front of the Hall. Before the Lodge is another bridge over the beck, again by Waterhouse [Grade II,NHLE 1139782]. The boundary walls, gate and gate piers to the lodge and driveway are listed [Grade II, NHLE 1310960].
Hutton Station was built in 1867 by Alfred Waterhouse to serve as a private station on the Middlesbrough to Guisborough line, it replaced an earlier station 0.25 miles (0.5 km) to the east. A carriageway went from here via stables to the front of the Hall. The drive was lined with shrubs and conifers including Thujopsis dolabrata and holly ‘Hodgkins Variety’ (The Gardening World, 4 January 1902).
Hutton Hall [Grade II, NHLE 1139779] was built in 1866-67 by Alfred Waterhouse with additions c. 1871-1874 including the two conservatories. The larger conservatory on the eastern side was 91 ft long, 20 ft wide at western end increasing to 40 ft and c. 20 ft high. It contained many fine planted specimens of palms, tree ferns, araucarias and bamboos including a Dicksonia antarctica and Cyatheadealbata that in 1880 were already large and around the pillars were climbing plants such as Cobaea scandens (Journal of Horticulture, 1 April). At the west end was a fernery (NYCRO K). The smaller western conservatory (25 ft by 17¼ ft) mainly had flowering plants in pots (The Gardening World, 4 January 1902).
- The Stables [Grade II, NHLE 1139780] were built 1866-67 by Alfred Waterhouse with additions c. 1874;
- The Gardener’s House [Grade II, NHLE 1139780] was built 1866-67 by Alfred Waterhouse with additions c. 1874
- The Cottage [later The Grange] was built by 1872 with additions in the 1920s. Originally designed as a hospital but soon converted to a private house (Dixon 1991, 81). It was occupied by employees of the Pease family until it was sold off after 1903. An additional storey was added in the 1920s.
- Home Farm [Grade II, NHLE 1139778] dates from the 1820s and built by David Thomas, see Section 3.2. There were further additions made in the 1870s and 1880s to the outbuildings to create the distinctive ‘E-shape’ noted in the listing.
- The Boathouse was built between 1874 and 1881, following the remodelling of the lake. It is described in the sale catalogue of 1903 (NYCRO K) as ‘picturesque rustic…[and] (can be seen from the principal reception rooms) [and is] erected on the banks of the Lake, with Tea Room over, approached by stone steps and balcony overhanging the water’. It was listed in the 1937 sale catalogue and shown on later OS maps.
Gardens and Pleasure Grounds
The gardens around the old Hutton Hall were relatively modest with an area of shrubbery to the north and a small formal area to the south. A further sketch by Alfred Pease (private collection) gives a description of its immediate surroundings. The left hand front gable had a Kerria japonica trained on lattice work and the side right hand wall had a Jargonelle pear growing up it. In front of the Hall was a circular bed with a fountain in the middle with a bay tree, Viburnum laurustinus [tinus] and an old Acacia tree. On the right of the Hall was a Cedar of Lebanon and behind it, a circular bed in the shape of a wheel, ringed with Portuguese laurel. The latter feature survived the demolition of the Hall and is shown on later maps with the ‘Poultry House’. An old orchard also survived until 1902, as McIndoe is asked to keep them in order (NCA Gainford 20/12).
With the building of the new Hall, designs were also submitted by Waterhouse for the surrounding gardens, most notably with a large terrace to the south with smaller ones on the east and west (RIBAL PA1514/WATA(10)). This was implemented with the exception of the eastern terrace as seen on the 1869 plan. By 1874, modifications to the Hall meant that only the large southern terrace garden remained. The layout here was by William Broderick Thomas.
The terrace was 300 feet by 120 feet (The Gardening World, 4 January 1902) and was divided into two sections with the western half a parterre with gravel and planting and the eastern section with beds around a lawn. An article from 1876 (The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 26 August) describes it as being ‘contiguous to the mansion and is only separated from it by a broad terrace walk; it is in a sunk panel of grass on a gravel groundwork, with neatly designed figures for the more prominent bedding plants [Pelargonium ‘Star of Fire’, ‘Grand Duke’, ‘Lucas’, ‘Princess Alexandra’, ‘Violet Hill’, ‘Harry Hieover’ and ‘Robert Fish’; blue lobelia and verbenas]. A later article (Journal of Horticulture, 1 April 1880) describes the use of periwinkle, ivies and ericas as a contrast to the flowers. By 1903, there were rhododendrons planted in the eastern section and it was called ‘The Italian Garden’ (NYCRO K).
To the east of the Hall and around the southern and eastern sides of kitchen garden and stable complex were extensive areas of shrubbery (TA U.OME/22/M1). The walk from the Hall to the walled kitchen (fruit) garden had a laurel bank on the northern side and a rose border used for cut flowers (The Gardening World, 4 January 1902 & NYCRO K). To the west of the Hall past the tennis and croquet lawns were pleasure grounds with many specimen trees and shrubs, flanking the carriageway to the Lodge. Through this area ran the Hutton Beck that had been enhanced with rockwork, including a waterfall by James Pulham (see Section 3.3.1).
A walk ran south from the Hall past the Poultry House (on the site of the old Hall) to Reed’s Wood and High Bank Bottom. Along the walks that led south above the new Hutton village were a series of seats and three summerhouses. The area around Hutton Beck at the bottom of the slope was also landscaped with a waterfall, possibly also by Pulham.
The original part of the kitchen garden was built c. 1868-9 and covered about 2¼ acres with the main walled section of just under 1½ acres. This was laid out with a central fountain and paths running through the centre and along the outer walls. On the northern wall was a single lean-to glasshouse with associated buildings behind c. 110 ft in length and 17 ft to 31 ft wide. Modifications to this are shown in the Waterhouse plan (RIBAL PA1514/WATA(31)) that also included a central greenhouse and behind it, a fernery. The latter was described as ‘very prettily constructed and has a very natural appearance with its miniature waterfalls which tumble over rocks and fall into the pool below’ (The Gardening World, 4 January 1902).
In 1869, T. G. Messenger provided a quote, requested by Waterhouse, for several heated greenhouses, 1875 sq ft of framing, a propagating frame and lights totalling 175 sq ft at a cost of £289 (LRRO DE2121-41). This is believed to be the plan in the Waterhouse archive (RIBAL PA1514/WATA(30)) that shows 4 lean-to glasshouses: 35 x 12ft forcing house, 2 cucumber houses each 15 x 12 ft and a stove measuring 20 x 16ft, backing onto a 9ft wall.
He provided a quote the following year, requested by Mr Robinson, the Clerk of Works, for unheated 8 or 10ft peach walls with trellis and in c. 1872 for a 72ft by 14ft 9in heated lean-to peach house with strawberry shelving along the whole length of the peach house (LRRO DE2121-42). Although the first two do not seem to have been implemented, the latter may be the early peach house that was added after 1874 (Jeff Guy, pers. comm, https://tgmessenger.co.uk/).
The second phase had expanded the area to about 6½ acres by 1881. The existing walled garden was retained but its glasshouses were modified to extend their length along the wall to 260 feet. On the western side was an early peach house (70 x 12 ft) and on the eastern an extended late vinery (66 x 17 ft) and an orchard house. More peaches were grown in the central part.
By 1876, a 270ft long corridor with glass roof had been added to the north with a series of glasshouses attached at right angles to it. Details of these glasshouses are given below.
Planting in 18761
Planting in 19022
60 x 12 ft
Melons/Misc plants for overwintering
60 x 20ft
Stove – hothouse plants
Stove – hothouse including bananas
60 x 34 ft
Vinery – Black Hamburgh
60 x 34 ft
46 x 22 ft
Vinery – Muscat
Late Peach House
60 x 34 ft
Vinery - Misc
60 x 20ft
Stove – hothouse plants
Tomato House/ Miscplants for overwintering
60 x 12 ft
Cucumbers and melons
90 x 12ft
Hot and Cool House – Orchids and Ferns
Cyclamen; 2 orchid houses; ferns and palms
1 The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 26 August 1876
2 The Gardening World, 4 January 1902; NCA Gainford 20/13)
The glass corridor itself had peach and fig trees along the back wall, with climbers overhead (Journal of Horticulture, 1 April 1880). By 1902, it also housed lemons, oranges and guavas on the north side of the western section with roses in the east (The Gardening World, 4 January). While the boilers were provided by J. Weeks & Co (The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 20 November 1875), the designer of the new glasshouse complex is not known. It may possibly have been Waterhouse as a very similar design was installed at Eaton Hall about 1870, when Waterhouse was remodelling the Hall and the kitchen gardens (Journal of Horticulture, 13 July 1876).
William Richardson, the horticultural buildings expert, was consulted in February 1874 (see Section 3.3.1) so may have either given advice or supplied the new range. Richardson was also a relative of Pease and had provided many members of his extended family with architectural designs including the new school house at Hutton that was built in 1857 (DL Richardson and Ross, p4). In Richardson’s catalogue of c. 1894, he lists Hutton Hall and JW Pease as a client.
To the west of the glasshouses were a range of pineapple pits and ‘hot water pits’ for starting strawberries in a frame yard (ibid). The estate plan of 1883 shows four more small glasshouses on the western side between the two larger ranges, and constructions on the eastern side but their use is unknown.
By 1881, an orchard of over 2 acres had been laid out to the north and the original walled kitchen garden also had fruit trees in it both on the walls and planted in the ground. A new vegetable garden had been constructed to the east with a 250 x 18 ft cool orchard house on its eastern wall.
In October 1902, Pease drew up an agreement for McIndoe to continue to manage the gardens for a year (NCA Gainford20/13). This included maintaining the conservatories, flower garden (parterre), the tennis lawn, the roads from the station to the Hall, from the Hall to the Poultry Houses and from the Hall to the Lodge.
The park land includes Eastern parkland [‘The Park’]; laid out 1868-9, it covered 65 acres in 1881 (TA U.OME/22/M1). To the north was the ‘Railway Plantation’ to screen it from the rail line. The eastern boundary was largely open to afford views past the estate’s grounds. To the south is the pond. The Western parkland is a section to east of former railway line laid out 1868-9, with western part by 1874. By 1881, it covered 160.5 acres (TA U.OME/22/M1).
The woodland and plnantation areas include:
- Reed’s Wood/High Bank Bottom : dating from the early 19th century, by 1849 the plantationsthere covered 32 acres (GM Grace Dixon Archive, Deeds).This had increased by 1881 to 34.5 acres (TAU.OME/22/M1). Also called Home Wood in 1937 sale catalogue.
- Hutton Wood: at the southern extent of the estate, it was planted following the closure of the ironstone mine in 1865. It was expanded between 1874 and 1881 to cover 108 acres (TA U.OME/22/M1).
- Sawmill Wood: planted after 1874, it covered 54 acres in 1881 (TA U.OME/22/M1) but this had reduced to 43 acres by 1903 (NYCRO K).
- Hall Heads/Haggs Wood: the survey of 1812 (NA CRES 34/300) noted some mature and ‘improving’ timber in Haggs Wood to the south. The tithe apportionment has two areas of woodland each of 4 acres (‘Hall Heads Wood’ and ‘Haggs Wood’) that are shown on the 1st edition 6” OS map surveyed in 1853. This had been expanded by 1874 and in 1881 covered 43.5 acres (TA U.OME/22/M1). By 1903, it measured 52 acres.
- Roseberry Road Plantation: planted after 1874, it covered 26 acres in 1881 but had reduced to 24 acres in 1903.
- Brown’s Intake: planted after 1874, it covered 21 acres in 1881.
- High Bousdale Wood/Nettle Pits/Low Bousdale Wood: Woodland is shown in these areas on the 1782 map (NA MR 1_133), covering c. 15 acres. The survey from 1812 lists the following trees spread across 11 acres: 2675 oaks and 68 ash (High Bousdale); 481 oaks and 4 ash (Nettle Pit) and 627 oaks and 140 ash (Low Bousdale). The area of woodland had increased to 65 acres in 1881 and totalled 74 acres in 1903.
- Harrison Close Wood: The southern section dating from before 1782 was c. 3 acres.The 1812 survey described it as ‘Harrison Gill Wood’ and noted it had 280 oaks, 927, 20 ash and 1 elm that were ‘improving’ in the 6 acres. The area of woodland had increased to 20 acres in 1881 but had reduced to 14 acres in 1903.
- Cottage Plantation and The Avenue: the Cottage Plantation dates from between 1869 and 1874 and covered c. 7 acres in 1881. The Avenue dates from 1878, see Section 3.3.2.
In addition there is a fishpond; just under an acre, it was constructed c. 1869 on the site of the stables and outbuildings for the old Hutton Hall. It was modified between 1874 and 1881 to include a boathouse; and also Hutton Beck, a natural stream that flowed from the hills towards the Hall was modified to form waterfalls in the section running through the western parkland by Pulham and in Bank Bottom possibly also by Pulham.
Borthwick Institute, University of York (BI)
- CC.Ab.7Archbishopric Estate Rentals, Valuation of estate at Hutton Lowcross 1782, 1811, 1830, 1831 and 1841
Darlington Library (DL)
- Richardson and Ross Design Book 1855-1862
Guisborough Museum (GM)
- 2015.140Plan of Hutton Estate 1869 (part of OME Archives, now missing)
- Grace Dixon ArchiveDeed of exchange of lands between the Crown and JW Pease, October 1865 (part of OME Archives, now missing)
- Deeds relating to Chaloner land at Hutton (part of OME Archives, now missing)
Leicestershire and Rutland Record Office (LRRO)
- DE 2121-41TG Messenger, Contract Book 1 1864-71
- DE 2121-42TG Messenger, Contract Book 2 1871-5
National Archives (NA)
- C 111/223 Court of Chancery: Master Brougham's Exhibits, Rudsdale v Harding
- CRES 2/1413Papers relating to boundary dispute, 1861
- CRES 34/300Survey and Valuation of the Manor or Estate of Hutton Locris by John Bower, 1812
- IR 29/42/190Tithe award for Hutton Lowcross, 1844
- IR 30/42/190Tithe map for Hutton Lowcross, 1845
- MPEE1_42Plan of Estates in the Manors of Hutton Lowcross and Pinchinthorp belonging to Her Majesty, 1862
- MR 1_133A plan of His Majesties Manor or Lordship of Hooton, 1782
North Yorkshire County Record Office (NYCRO)
- KHutton Hall Sale Catalogues 1903 & 1937
- QSB 1865 2/13Diversion of road from Guisborough to Kildale in Hutton Lowcross, 1865
- ZFM A rough map of the manor of Guisborough, the estate of Wm Chaloner, c. 1773
- ZFMA plan of the manor of Guisborough, c. 1799
Nuffield College Archives, University of Oxford (NCA)
- Papers of Lord Gainford (Joseph Albert Pease)
- 20/12Memo of arrangement with Macindoe [McIndoe] for renting Hutton Hall Gardens
- 20/13 Inventory of garden plants and tools at Hutton Hall, 20 October 1902
- Diaries of Joseph Whitwell Pease
- Hutton Estate Accounts 1867-1872, including ‘estate improvement account’
- Sketches of old Hutton Hall and its surroundings in 1866 by Alfred Pease
Royal Institute of British Architects Library (RIBAL)
- Alfred Waterhouse Collection of Drawings (PA1514/WATA)
- (1-2)Preliminary designs for Hutton Hall, 1864
- (10)Design for garden layout, Hutton Hall, c. 1864
- (12-21)Preliminary designs & designs for additions to Hutton Hall, 1873
- (23-26)Design for stables at Hutton Hall, 1874
- (30)Design for forcing houses at Hutton Hall, c. 1869
- (31-32)Design for vineries etc. at Hutton Hall, c. 1874
Teesside Archives (TA)
- R/M/RSG/5/82Abstract of title to the Hutton Hallestate, 1936
- U.OME/5/10Plan of freehold and leasehold property in Cleveland in the North Riding of Yorkshire, owned and leased by J. W. Pease, 1874
- U.OME/5/11Plan of Hutton and Pinchinthorpe Estate in the North Riding of the County of York the property of Sir J. W. Pease, 1883
- U.OME (5)/83Deeds, OME to John Mathison, Hutton Hall and 13.553 acres, 25 March 1948
- U.OME (5)/232Deeds, OME to John Mathison, Hutton Hall Lodge and 3.5 acres, 16 November 1954
- U.OME/21/1Perambulation of the manors of Hutton Lowcross and Pinchinthorpe on 7 Sept 1859 with plan showing boundaries of the manors
- U.OME/22/M1Schedule of Hutton and Pinchinthorpeestates showing acreage of land allotted to estate farms and houses, 1881
- U.PEN (2)/25/5Letter from Alfred Pease to Jim [James Worsley Pennyman] concerning the history of Hutton Lowcross, 20 October 1911
- Journals and Magazines
- Gloucester Journal
- Journal of Horticulture
- Journal of Royal Horticultural Society
- Sheffield Daily Telegraph
- The Garden
- The Gardeners’ Chronicle
- The Gardeners’ Magazine
- The Gardening World
- The Northern Echo
- Ordnance Survey 6” 1st edition, surveyed 1853, published 1856
- Ordnance Survey 25” 1st edition, surveyed 1893, published 1894
- Ordnance Survey 25” Rev edition, surveyed 1913, published 1915
- Ordnance Survey 6” Rev edition, surveyed 1913, published 1919
Detailed Description contributed by Yorkshire Gardens Trust 2018
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Hutton Hall park and garden was the creation of Sir Joseph Whitwell Pease who decided to build himself a new estate in 1864. Pease was a member of the well-known Quaker family of industrialists and financiers who were responsible for the development of the railways around Darlington and Middlesbrough as an industrial centre. It is therefore fitting that Pease chose a site that he had first encountered when he and his father invested in the local ironstone mine and built a railway to it from Middlesbrough. Its natural topography with the Cleveland Hills surrounding it to the south made it an ideal site to create a designed landscape. Pease may have been inspired by the gardens in Cornwall of Glendurgan and Trebah, created respectively by his wife’s father and uncle, Alfred and Charles Fox.
Pease had the resources to build an estate that employed the best in their field: including the renowned architect, Alfred Waterhouse; the rockwork specialist, James Pulham; the landscape designer, William Broderick Thomas; Simeon Marshall of James Backhouse & Sons, the nursery and landscape designers and William Richardson, the horticultural building expert. In 1874, he engaged as his head gardener James McIndoe, who skilfully managed an extensive kitchen garden of over 6 acres and about 20 different glasshouses. McIndoe was later recognised by his peers by being one of the first to receive the Royal Horticultural Society’s Victoria Medal of Honour.
The manor of Hutton Lowcross was owned by Gisborough Priory and on the latter’s dissolution in 1540 it was split between the Crown, the See of York and the Chaloner estate in nearby Guisborough. From 1859, Pease began to acquire land but negotiating with the many landowners meant it was not complete until 1875. The historic park and gardens of 737 acres that included extensive parkland and hillside plantations is largely in place today although key features such as the glasshouses and summerhouses in the woodland have not survived.
HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE SITE
3.1 Estate owners
The township or manor of Hutton [Lowcross], owned by Gisborough Priory, was divided three ways following the dissolution of the priory in 1540. The first section of the land (c. 271 acres) was granted to Thomas Leigh as a tenant that year and became part of the estate of Gisborough, which wassold to Thomas Chaloner in 1550 by the Crown (Walker Ord1846, 579-580). The second section of c. 255 acres was granted to the See of York [Archbishop of York] in 1545 (PRO 1905, 214), who leased it out to a succession of tenants.The remainder of the land (c. 426 acres) in Hutton was kept by the Crown, rented out and administered by the Hospital of the Savoy in London until 1702 (Dixon 1991, 59). In 1545, the tenant of both the Crown and the Archbishop of York was Adam Pursglove, possibly the brother of Robert, the last prior of Gisborough (PRO 1905, 214). On his death, his tenancy was shared between his two sons, John and Robert.
By 1806, this part of Hutton on the western side was divided into two farms that were sold by Robert Chaloner to JosephHickson that year (GM Grace Dixon Archive, Deeds). ‘Hutton House Farm’ occupied 141 acres of lowland and was sold by Hickson in 1814 to Thomas Pym Williamson for £5500 (ibid).Thomas Shaw Bancroft Reade bought it in 1837 and it wasinherited by his son, George, in 1841. ‘Codhill Farm’ had 130acres of upland and had a succession of owners from 1806 until it was acquired by Henry Thomas in 1851 for £2000 (ibid).
Archbishopric of York lands
John Pursglove was the tenant for these lands on his death in 1587 (Dixon 1991, 49), which he passed onto his son, John. By 1596, the lease had been given to Thomas Sandys (NA C 111/223) for 21 years, followed by Thomas Mudd in 1616. The Mudd family sold the lease to Sir James Pennyman in 1654 for £1200 and it stayed with the Pennyman family until 1752 (Dixon 1991, 54). Charles Robinson then sold his rights to Richard Harding in 1767 for nearly £4000 (ibid). In 1808/9, John Moon of Bousdale and David Thomas of Lowcross Farm bought the tenancy rights from Richard Harding’s son, with the latter buying out the former in 1817. Thomas left his property to his two sons, William and John with the latter inheriting after his brother’s death in 1833. In 1843, John Thomas died and his son, Henry (later owner of Codhill Farm, see above), gained the leases that he held until his death in 1864.
The first surviving lease for this part of Hutton is from 1634 when it was granted to Cuthbert Corney, Robert Colthirst and Nicholas Proddy, who occupied Lockeris [also Locker] House (now Lowcross Farm) for 21 years (Dixon 1991, 59). In 1653 a new lease was granted to Thomas Mudd (who held the Archbishop of York lands) but in 1660, they passed to Robert Rosse for Richard, Ralph and Matthew Yoward. Following the dissolution of the Savoy Hospital, in 1716 Richard Yoward was granted direct rights and lands in Hutton belonging to the Crown (ibid, 60). Richard’s son, Ralph, died intestate in 1781 and his nephew, Mann Horsfield, administered his estate which was inherited by his stepchildren, Edmund (d 1800) and Jane Robinson (d 1842). The survey of 1812 (TA CRES 34/300) lists a Mrs Mary Robinson, widow, as the holder of the main lease. This may have confused Horsfield’s wife Mary, who died in 1793, with Edmund’s widow, Elizabeth (neé Metcalfe).
By 1859, Joseph Whitwell Pease had acquired part of the former estate belonging to the Archbishop of York (TA U.OME/21/1), including what would become Home Farm and a small part of the Crown lands to the south of the old village.In 1864 he acquired the Hutton Hall estate from Reade (TAR/M/RSG/5/82), having leased it from c. 1855 (Dixon 1991, 89) and the remaining part of the estate leased by Henry Thomas. In 1865, he exchanged lands with Crown and became the lessee for further Crown lands by 1874. In 1872, he bought the Codhill estate from John Thomas’ widow (Dixon 1991, 80) and with additional purchases from the Crown meant that by 1881, the estate at Hutton of c. 820 acres was now in Pease’s possession (TA U.OME/22/M1).
Following a legal claim against the family-owned bank, Pease had to sell the Hutton estate in 1903 (NYCRO K). It wasbought two years later by James Warley Pickering in 1905 for £43,000 (TA R/M/RSG/5/82), who retained it until his death in 1925. The estate was left to son, Warley, who transferred the ownership of estate to a family company in 1931, just prior to his death. The estate was then valued at £27,000.
The Pickering family company sold Hutton Hall estate to the Middlesbrough Estate company in 1936 for £30,000 (TA R/M/RSG/5/82). This was the company set up in 1829 by Joseph W. Pease’s father and grandfather to develop Middlesbrough and his sons were still involved in the business. In 1937, the Middlesbrough Estate company wanted to sell off the Hall and part of the historic landscape of 54acres, as well as the five adjoining farms (NYCRO K). The Hall and 13.5 acres was finally sold to John Mathison in 1948 (TA U.OME(5)/83), together with the Lodge and 3.5 acres in 1954 (TA U.OME(5)/232). In 1999, the stables and other outbuildings were converted into residential units and sold off.
Key owners responsible for the development of the designed landscape and the dates of their involvement:
Thomas Shaw Bancroft Reade (1837 – 1841)
George Reade (1841 – c. 1855)
Sir Joseph Whitwell Pease (1864 – 1902)
3.2 Early history of the site
Note while the town is currently spelt ‘Guisborough’, the historic name ‘Gisborough’ is used for the Priory, Hall and Manor.
In 1086, Hutton [or Hoton] was recorded in the Domesdaybook as part of Gisborough, belonging to Count Robert of Mortain, the half-brother of William I and a large landowner following the Norman Conquest. By the early 12th century, the lands had passed to Robert de Brus, who founded Gisborough Priory in 1119. By the late 12th century, the ‘de Hoton’ family were resident when Robert de Skeltonconfirmed c. 1170-1185 that his grandmother, Emma de Hoton, had granted to the canons of Gisborough Priory 3bovates (c. 60 acres) and 3 tofts (houses) in Hutton (Farrer 1915, 47-48).
In 1241, the manor passed from Peter de Brus to his son-in-law Marmaduke de Thweng. At Kirkby’s Inquest of c. 1276, Hugh de Hoton living in Hoton, was the mesne (tenant) Lord, holding six carucates (c. 120 acres) here and at Pinchinthorpe(Surtees Society 1867, 129). In 1290, Hugh died and the manor passed to his son, John (ibid). In 1335, John de Hotonwith the licence of Sir Bartholomew Fanacourt and Lucia his wife (daughter of Robert de Thwenge), gave the manor of Hoton to the prior and convent of Gisborough. In 1338, the prior then granted the manor to John during his life for anannual pension (YAS 1910, 93 & 130). In 1346, Nicholas de Hoton (son of John) quitclaimed (relinquished) the manor to Gisborough Priory and it remained the owner until its dissolution in 1540.
The leper hospital of St. Leonard at Hutton Lowcross was thought to have been founded in the late 12th century (Surtees Society 1889, 179) but its precise location or locations is not known. In one charter Richard, son of Hugh de Hoton,confirmed to the lepers of Lowcross, 2 acres in Hutton, where ‘the hospital had anciently stood’ (ibid, 171) but from other charters, it is described as being between ‘Hotonam’ (Hutton) and ‘Bernaldby' (to the north) (ibid, 181). By the mid 14thcentury, it appears to have become part of Gisborough Priory, as there are no further references to it as a separate unit and it is not mentioned in the accounts when the Priory was dissolved (ibid, xxi).
The origin of the building that became ‘Hutton Hall’ by the mid 19th century is not clear but it is sited in the medieval village of Hutton. In 1290, the possessions of the deceased Hugh de Hoton were listed as following: the manor of Hoton; 130a of arable land; 16a of meadow; 22 bovates (c. 440a) of land in bondage (i.e. as tenant); capital messuage; 21 cottages and a watermill (YAS 1898, 106). The ‘capital messuage’ or manor house occupied by Hugh de Hoton had a fishpond fed by a spring (Dixon 1991, 44). Whether this building survived as part of or on the site of later structures is not known. The slopes of the hills between the village and the upper moorland were wooded and Hugh was given permission to ‘make a park over and above his manor of Hutton’ (YAS 1955, 107-8). The land belonging to Reade’s ‘Hutton House Farm’ estate included an area of 7 acres called ‘Parkes’ (NA CRES2/1413). This name does not appear on any maps although it may be the ‘Pinderdyke Whins’ that is also 7 acres and is next to Kemplah Wood on Guisborough estate maps (NYCRO ZFM).
A ‘tenement’ or building at Hoton was given to the then Prior, James Cockerill, in 1536 when he resigned and surrendered the Priory (PRO 1887, No 927). Cockerill was executed the following year and his possessions were probably seized by the Crown. In 1540 when the Manor of Gisborough (including part of Hutton) was transferred to Thomas Leigh from Gisborough Priory, it was described as (Walker Ord 1846, 575):
‘one tenement called Hoton House with the toft adjacent containing by estimation half an acre as also one messuage or mansion in the same place enclosed with a stone wall called Hoton Hall and one close of meadow called Hoton Great Close containing by estimation twenty acres and one close of pasture called More close together with Coddale otherwise called Rothergate close containing by estimation fifty acres and one close of land called Sleddale close containing by estimation two acres
Some buildings are shown on the Guisborough estate map ofc. 1773 (NYCRO ZFM) next to a garth or enclosed area of 2 acres and a field called ‘Close End’ of 4 acres. These are on the site of the later (old) Hutton Hall. In the old village are more buildings in Crown lands, tenanted by Ralph Yoward, including two barns. These are shown on the map of Hutton manor of 1782 (NA MR 1_133). Whether either of these are the 16th century ‘Hoton Hall’ and ‘Hoton House’ is not known but the property on Crown lands has two large barnsnearby, so would lay greater claim to being the Hall and possibly the medieval manor house. It is next to the area known as ‘The Parks’ identified by Alfred Pease due south (TA U.PEN(2)/25/5), although the Parks were part of Reade’s property (see above). Prior to 1859, Reade’s property was known as ‘Hutton House Farm’ according to an affidavit by William Potter who claimed to have known it ‘fifty years and upwards’ (NA CRES2/143).
A further complex of buildings listed in 1595 was the residence of Adam Pursglove and later his two sons on the land owned by the Archbishopric of York:
‘Two capital messuages one slated (roof) another straw thatched, one bakehouse, one oxhouse, two barns, one calf house, one kiln house’ (NA C 111/223)
These are shown on the map of Hutton of 1782 (NA MR 1_133) surrounding an area called ‘Hooton Green’ in the part belonging to the Archbishopric of York. The description from 1595 (NA C 111/223) equates to the land shown on the 1782 map (NA MR 1_133):
‘One close called the Longe close adjoining to the south side of the said two capital messuages…one close or garth called Ashclose adjoining to the north side of one of the barns, divers closes of pasture and meadow lying together at the North and North west side of the lane leading from the said two capital messuages towards Gisborne [Guisborough], then commonly called and known by the names of Somerfield Haverfield Middlefield Wheatfield Wynterfield and Calf close, and one close called Bynge close lying about Bowesdale[Bousdale]…situated…at Hooton in Cleveland…of late in the tenure or occupation of Adam Pursglove’
In 1550, the lands of the former Gisborough Priory (including Hoton Hall and House as described above) were bought by Sir Thomas Chaloner. The tenant in the 1781 land tax survey of ‘Hutton House Farm’ [later Hutton Hall] was John Lincoln. In1806, Robert Chaloner sold off Hutton Farm [Hall] and 141acres to his agent, Joseph Hickson, who then sold the farm with 116 acres to T. P. Williamson for £5500. Williamson mortgaged it to Thomas Shaw Bancroft Reade, a merchant from Leeds in 1820 and following Williamson’s death in 1836, Reade gained control of the estate (GM Grace Dixon Archive, Deeds). It is mentioned in his will of 8 February 1841 (Reade 1906, 102):
‘Estate or farm called Hutton Low Cross in the North Riding of Yorks., with all the buildings, etc., lately built by me, to my son George Reade…[to] George, £800 and the Hutton Low Cross estate which I value at, £2,500.’
A description from 1859 (NA CRES 2/1413) lists the propertyas having: Messuage or Mansion House Gardens and Homestead – 1 acre; Fields and Closes (lowland) – 53 acres; Park and Hill plains – 31 acres and Plantations – 32 acres. The latter can be seen on the 1st edition OS map but not marked on the Guisborough estate map of c. 1799 (NYCRO ZFM), so they were planted after it had been sold by Robert Chaloner. Later maps call the area ‘Reed’s (sic) Wood’ so may have been planted by the Reade family. The stable complex to the east was built before 1816 and was added to by Thomas Reade before 1841 (GM Grace Dixon Archive, Deeds).
The Crown farm in the old ‘Hooton’ village was tenanted by Robert Trenholme from the 1780s but it was being slowly reduced in size. In a survey of 1811 (BI CC.Ab.7), 7 of the cottages in the village had been pulled down:
Dodsworth House in Glover Close, down 42 years; Robert Weatherill’s house in Mark Garth down 55 years; Three Cottages tenants William Barker, Colburn and Sunley house down 40 years [in Salter Garth]; Swainston [close] house and garth down 40 years; Proddy House in Low Pasture [possibly in later ‘Calf Close’ next to Mark Close] down 40 to 80 years
By the time of the tithe award in 1844 (NA IR 29/42/190), only the main farmhouse and barn opposite remained. The former was said to have pulled down in 1855 (Dixon 1991, 90) when the site was chosen for buildings related to the new mining operation including a row of workers’ cottages, a school and Mine Agent’s House. On the deed of exchange in 1865 (GM Grace Dixon Archive) however, 144a is listed as ‘Hutton Hall Farm House’ and 143a as ‘Hutton Hall Farm Buildings and Yards’, so they presumably were rebuilt. They are shown on the map of 1862 (NA MPEE1_42).
In addition to the plantations in High and Low Bousdale, Nettle Pit and Harrison Gill shown on the 1782 map, the 1812 Crown estate survey (TA CRES 34/300) also noted that there was a mix of mature and ‘improving’ timber at Haggs and Mark Close just south of the old village. Further areas of High Bousdale had also been recently planted and the surrounding previous woodland had been replanted as both were described as ‘improving’.
The ‘Hooton Green’ farm belonging to the Archbishop of York as described above remained largely intact until the 1820s when the later ‘Home Farm’ was built. David Thomas had taken over all the tenancy rights of the Archbishop’s lands by 1817 and decided a new farmstead was needed. By 1844, only one building remained (NA IR 29/42/190) at the corner of the ‘stackyard’, presumably a barn.
Joseph Pease and his son, Joseph Whitwell, took the lease of the Codhill estate with its ironstone mine in 1851 and were instrumental in building the railway to it, proposed in November of that year. They were directors of the Stockton to Darlington Railway and this line, known as the Middlesbrough and Guisborough Railway, was principally intended to move the ironstone from the mine to Middlesbrough (Harrison and Dixon 1982, 191). In 1855, Pease took the lease of George Reade’s estate, including Hutton Hall and stayed at this property when visiting Hutton, his main residence being in Darlington (Dixon 1991, 89). Two paintings by Joseph’s son, Alfred (private collection) show the old Hall and its surroundings in 1866.
3.3 Chronological history of the designed landscape3.3.1 1859 – 1874
By 1859, Joseph W Pease had acquired the land around the railway to the mine (TA U.OME/21/1) and from 1863, he started to acquire further land in Hutton including the old Hutton Hall from George Reade and its surroundings on 17 May 1864 (TA R/M/RSG/5/82). In 1864, Pease also acquired the neighbouring estate of Pinchinthorpe House from Henry Thomas (Dixon 1991, 29) and on 13 October of that year, herecorded in his diary that ‘we went on to Wards [High Farm, Pinchinthorpe] and Thomas’ [Lowcross Farm] farms and laid out there a few plantations by way of making it look warmer and snugger’. These are the ‘Ward’s Bank’ and ‘Thomas Plantation’ that are to the west of Bousdale Hill.
Pease though was planning a new estate for himself at Huttonand he commissioned the noted architect, Alfred Waterhouse, to design a new mansion (RIBAL PA1514/WATA(1-2)).In his diary entry for the 1 November 1864 (private collection), he noted that he and Waterhouse ‘walked over the place and canvassed various sites – at last pretty much fixed and staked it out; after lunch we had another examination. Cockburn gave us a lecture upon the sun rise which had some effect upon our plans. After dinner, we sat down again and redrew the back offices and arranged carriage drive &c to suit the house, the work amusing and interesting.’ As well as plans for the house, Waterhouse also designed the terraced gardens to the south and west of the new mansion (RIBAL PA1514/WATA(10)).
On 12 May 1865, Pease obtained an order to close the road into the old Hutton village (NYCRO QSB 1865 2/13) that crossed the site of the new Hall. The Codhill mine had closed in 1865 and the railway to it was redundant, so this was removed. On the 4th May that year, he ‘looked at the position of the bridges over the stream by the road & the bridges over it near the house. Alfred Waterhouse will send designs for these’ and the following day ‘set out the carriage drive, examined minutely into site of a kitchen garden and stables if ever built there and studied the same from the hill, at bridges in the wood’ (JWP diary). The following year work began on the new estate and proposals from Waterhouse included a ‘game larder, bridges, lodge, walled garden, gardeners’ cottages, conservatories and vineries’ (Waterhouse andCunningham 1992, quoted in The Northern Echo 21 October 2009). The initial cost of the building work was £10,036(ibid).
Work on the grounds started in February 1868 when William Broderick Thomas, the landscape gardener, arrived at Hutton on the 4th. Pease noted that ‘Thomas came in and we were soon at work; we looked at the carriage drive, at the Terraces, the road to the wood etc’. On the 13th of that month, he saw‘Alfred Waterhouse and talked over with him Thomas’s plans for the terrace walks – he was to see Thomas and report further’. The work continued that year and on the 9 OctoberPease was ‘with Mr Thomas on kitchen garden front, on plantations in new part of Park, on terrace &c, planting position of walks & streams – his eye is wonderfully good…then into woods and did some work at cleaning out and gaps to let in light’.
On the 21 October, Pease recorded ‘Pulham the rock workman came to lay out the stream here in front of the west windows. Walked with him up to the quarries, and took him generally round the place. Started him at work…then with Pulham over his work which looked well in stakes.’ On 1 April 1869, he noted that ‘The stream rockwork (west side of the Hall) [was] looking really well’.
James Pulham recorded in his promotional booklet Picturesque Ferneries and Rock Garden Scenery (published c. 1877) that he designed and built ‘Waterfalls in mountain stream; Exotic fernery; Rocky stream through Pleasure Grounds, in natural stone’ at Hutton Hall(www.pulham.rocks/2015/05/31/49-jun-15-1868-74-hutton-hall-guisborough-north-yorkshire/#_edn1). The estate improvement accounts for 1869 and 1870 record that the Pulham rockwork cost a total of £1,085. In 1874, Pulham was said to be building a rock garden at Hutton (The Garden, 22 August). This may have been the work landscaping the beck in Reed’s Wood/High Bank Bottom (see Section 4.8).
On 2 Feb 1869 Pease says ‘I went with Thomas the landscape gardener to the old garden [of the former Hutton Hall], to kitchen garden walk between them, plantations, stream &c’. A plan of the grounds dated 1869 (GM 2015.140) shows the new layout with the completed mansion, kitchen garden, parkland, plantations and lake.
Work continued throughout 1870, as on the 7 November, Pease records: ‘A beautiful morning; went with Thomas to the old Hutton Hall kitchen garden and about the place, then to Pinchinthorpe where we set out some planting and the road near the house, spent most of the day on it and in setting out the flower garden.’
The estate improvement accounts (private collection) showthe following expenditure in these two years:
W B Thomas
William B Thomas was still at Hutton in 1871 as on the 26 October, Pease ‘went out with Thomas the landscape gardener; he worked at the pond and plantations behind the stables’ and 2 days later, Thomas was cutting down trees. Thomas later laid out the grounds at Sandringham and the terrace gardens at Upsall Castle and Dalton Hall.
An estate map of 1874 (TA U.OME/5/10) shows more detail of the landscaping to the south around Hutton village and the former Codhill mine. A path led from the mansion via the Poultry House (site of former Hall) to High Bank Bottom where there were two summerhouses on the paths that ran along the hillside, affording views back to the Hall and across to the hills opposite with the local landmark of ‘Hanging Stone’. To the north of the railway line, there was a new road from Hutton station to Hutton Field House. South of this was ‘The Cottage’ which was also landscaped, mainly around the beck that flowed through its grounds.
An obituary for Simeon Marshall (The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 27 August 1910) credits him with laying out or developing the grounds at Hutton Hall, while working for Messrs James Backhouse & Sons, the nursery based in York. He joined the firm in 1861, first as a temporary hand then responsible for the glasshouses and later as a landscape contractor. JW Pease was related by marriage to the founder of the nursery, James Backhouse III (1794-1869), as his maternal aunt, Hannah Chapman Gurney, had married Backhouse’s cousin, Jonathan. There are some extracts from Pease’s diary that would indicate Marshall’s advice was sought on the glasshouses, conservatory and possibly the wider designed landscape:
30 Dec 1873 - I returned home to meet Marshall from Backhouses of York. He went through all my [green]houses with me and we had a good deal of conversation; he thinks Funnell is not good enough a gardener for me - that the conservatory is wrongly piped, and that there are not succession houses enough to keep the place up… I was pleased with him [Marshall].
22 Jan 1874 - With Alfred Waterhouse on old walls and new works, Marshall of Backhouses of York, and Holmes hot water man of York came, and we went into the alterations required to heat the conservatory and grow climbers – a good morning's work at it
18 Feb 1874 - At Hutton met William Richardson, Marshall of Backhouses &c, about new vineries at alteration of conservatory pipes - a good deal of discussion
20 Mar 1874 - I had a call from Marshall of Backhouse & Co., we went into the question of planting the conservatory and various minor details about Hutton gardens. I gave him a margin of £3-£500 to put the conservatory in good order for the big plants.
17 July 1874 - setting house in order with MacIndoe & Carrington about greenhouses.
Pease was clearly not happy with his glasshouses and this led to the large complex being built (see Section 4.9).
3.3.2 1875 – 1883
In 1875, Pease acquired the Crown lands that he had previously leased (TA R/M/RSG/5/82) and continued to make improvements to the designed landscape. In the previous twoyears, he had commissioned further work from Alfred Waterhouse including adding a large conservatory onto the eastern wing (RIBAL PA1514/WATA (12-21)) andalterations to the stables (RIBAL PA1514/WATA (23-26)).
In late 1874, James McIndoe (1836-1910) was recruited as head gardener by Pease (The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 10 October 1903), presumably to oversee the large extension in the kitchen garden. He had previously been the head gardener at Bishopthorpe Palace, home of the Archbishop of York. By1881, he led a team of eight, up from three in 1871 (census records). He was well-known for his ability to produce exceptional fruit and was asked to supply some as part of British contribution to the Chicago expo of 1893 (The Gardeners’ Chronicle, 3 December 1892 & 3 June 1893). He was recognised in 1897 for his outstanding achievements by the RHS by being one of 60 recipients of the first Victoria Medal of Honour (Journal of Royal Horticultural Society, Vol XXI, Part I, 3).
Soon after McIndoe’s arrival, an article in The Gardeners’ Chronicle (26 August 1876) described the new designed landscape:
‘Hutton Hall is a modern residence of first-rate importance…It is of goodly proportions, aesthetically designed, beautifully situate at the base of the Cleveland range of hills, and the grounds about and around it are admirably laid out and in a splendid state of keeping. As a horticultural establishment, for scope and style…it is hardly second in importance to that of any establishment in the country. Only a few years ago it was an unpretending little place, with a goodly number of aged trees, which in these times have been…used up, to give a stateliness to the landscape. The undulating character of the surface has rendered the work of landscape gardening a comparatively easy task, and what with the chain of mountains rearing their heads in broken outline in the background, with the tableland beneath, there is much to please the eye…Mr Joseph Whitwell Pease, M.P.…has certainly neither spared skill or expense to make it “a thing of beauty”. All the temperate globe…has been laid under contribution to beautify the grounds’.
In 1878, an avenue of trees was planted extending north from Hutton beck towards Hutton Field House to commemorate the 21st birthday of Alfred Edward Pease, Joseph’s eldest son.
Between 1875 and 1880, the kitchen gardens were extended to the north and the east. In the northern section was a large complex of glasshouses that are detailed in Section 4.9 and to the east another walled kitchen garden with a lean-to orchard house. Eight seats were put in High Bank Bottom [later Home Wood] at strategic places along the paths. An additional summerhouse was built at the southern end together with adiversion to Hutton Beck to form a small pond and a waterfall, possibly also by Pulham.
In the eastern parkland, there was more landscaping around Poultry House and by 1881, the shape of the lake had been altered and a boathouse had been added on its eastern bank. On its western side were added two more summerhouses on either side of the lake (NYCRO K).
3.3.3 Later history
In 1903 the estate was put up for sale and it was finally sold in 1905 to James Warley Pickering, a wealthy shipowner. He clearly had the means to maintain the estate and employed W Richardson & Co. presumably for the glasshouses and/or conservatories (The Gardeners’ Magazine, 16 September 1911). However with his death in December 1925, the estate started to decline. In 1926, Warley’s executors put it up for sale (Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 5 March) but it did not sell. By 1927 some of the glasshouses on the western side had been removed including the long connecting ‘corridor’ but rest of the estate remained intact. Warley Pickering had inherited the estate from his father (Gloucester Journal, 20 February 1926) but in September 1931 had transferred it to a family run company, the ‘Hutton Lowcross Estate Company’.
Following the death of both Warley and his brother John in 1932, the estate was acquired by The Owners of the Middlesbrough estate (OME) in 1935. By this stage, large parts of the woodland on the slopes had been felled: High Bousdale (1930-36), Low Bousdale (1936) Hall Heads (1927) and Sawmill (1937) (NYCRO K). In 1937, OME tried to sell off Hall and surrounding estate of 1600 acres (ibid) but they had no takers for this or the alternative of the Hall and 54 acres (mainly the pleasure grounds, kitchen garden and a small part of the eastern parkland).
In 1948, the Hall and 13.5 acres was sold to John Mathison,who also bought the Lodge. The rest of northern glasshouses had gone by early 1950s and by 1967 only the orchard house remained. This disappeared too when the area was redeveloped in 1999.
Detailed History contributed by Yorkshire Gardens Trust 2018
- Associated People
- Features & Designations
- Reference: Not on the Historic England Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England
- Key Information
- Books and articles
Report by Louise Wickham [October 2018] YORKSHIRE GARDENS TRUST, NYMNPA Historic Designed Landscapes Project