Dalston Road Cemetery, Carlisle (also known as Carlisle Cemetery)1039

Cumbria, England, Cumbria, Carlisle

Brief Description

Dalston Road Cemetery is a municipal cemetery that was opened in 1855. The site occupies about 29 hectares. It was originally laid out in a pattern of regular quadrangles and ovals. The site had two mortuary chapels. A catholic chapel stood at the centre of the cemetery and a protestant chapel stood at the edge of the cemetery.

History

The land was purchased in 1854 and Dalston Road Cemetery was first opened in 1855.

Visitor Facilities

The site is open daily from 8am.

Terrain

An approximately rectangular plot of land on each side of the valley of the Fairy Beck which runs east/west across the site.

Detailed Description

The following is from the Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest. For the most up-to-date Register entry, please visit the The National Heritage List for England (NHLE):

www.historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list

A cemetery laid out in 1855 with offices, chapels, and lodges designed J W H & J M Hay of Liverpool. A mixture of formal and informal mature planting contributes to the character of the site.

DESCRIPTION

LOCATION, AREA, BOUNDARIES, LANDFORM, SETTING

The cemetery is situated c 1.5km south-west of the centre of Carlisle in a residential area bordering agricultural land. The c 29ha site is on an approximately rectangular plot of land on each side of the valley of the Fairy Beck which runs east/west across the site. The northern boundary is formed by a brick wall alongside Richardson Street, formerly with cast-iron railings. These have been reinstated beside the main entrance. The wall continues on the west side of the site along Dalston Road. The south-west side of the site is divided from the grounds of the mid-C20 crematorium (not included in the registered area) by a beech hedge. Iron railings divide the southern boundary from agricultural land, and a brick wall on the east side borders agricultural land and housing. Principal views are internal, along axial paths leading across the Fairy Beck, and to and from the entrances.

ENTRANCES AND APPROACHES

The principal entrance is at the centre of the north boundary off Richardson Street where the former curator's house and offices (listed grade II) are ranged on either side of an archway. Another entrance with a gate and gate piers (listed grade II) and a lodge (listed grade II) lies c 300m south-west of the main entrance on Dalston Road. A pedestrian entrance with stone gate piers lies c 250m south of this, also on Dalston Road, giving access to the late-C19 part of the site. The cemetery can also be entered from Carlisle Crematorium, which lies on the south-west side of the site and is not included in the registered area.

OTHER LAND

The main entrance leads to the earlier, mid-C19 part of the cemetery laid out with a system of paths consisting of a central pattern of axial paths about the two chapels which is flanked by areas of less formal curving paths to the east and west linked together by a curving perimeter path. The entrance arch on the north boundary frames a view of the central axial path leading south flanked by an avenue of clipped yews with flower beds alongside it. On the east side of the entrance buildings there are greenhouses, shown on the 1901 OS map, presumably used to raise plants for the ornamental flower beds. The central path leads to a point where paths, also with avenues of clipped yews and flower beds, lead west to the Nonconformist chapel (listed grade II) and east to the Anglican chapel (listed grade II). These are in Early English style, of red brick with stone dressings, and have bellcotes. A path continues west from the Nonconformist chapel to the entrance on Dalston Road flanked by a lime avenue. On the south-west side of the Anglican chapel, two sweet chestnut trees, left in situ, were carved with figures of a squirrel and an owl by Linda Watson in 1996-7. A north/south route runs as a terrace immediately east of the Anglican chapel. This overlooks a lower area to the east, reached by steps down the slope, which has been developed as a wildflower area from the late-C20. A curving oval path around this area is shown on the C19 and C20 maps crossed by axial paths with circuses, but the paths have been partially obscured by long grass. This part of the cemetery includes a pauper burial area and has relatively few memorials.

The land falls to the south and the Fairy Beck from the platform occupied by the chapels and there are long views southwards down the axial paths to the Beck and rising land beyond. The Beck is crossed by three bridges, the central one of stone with a stone parapet and the other two with cast-iron railings. These lead into the later C19 part of the cemetery which lies on land rising to the south from the Beck. A curving perimeter path is linked to a central east/west spine by cross routes, some of which are flanked by avenues. The main spine path is broad with generous grass verges backed by informal planting of mature trees, mainly yews and other evergreens.

Both parts of the cemetery have a good range of Victorian memorials, the most striking of which was designed in 1855 by R W Billings, to commemorate the architect Peter Nicholson (listed grade II), which lies c 20m west of the Anglican chapel. The whole of the site is planted with informal groups of mature trees, mainly evergreens, with native broadleaf varieties and some exotics such as Wellingtonia and Araucaria. The 1901 OS map shows perimeter planting only, though the treatment on the map may be schematic as the maturity of the planting suggests that much of it could be mid or late-C19 in origin. There is an ongoing scheme of new planting.

The southernmost part of the site, immediately south of the later C19 section, occupies an area of c 3.25ha and was laid out on a grid in the mid to late-C20. It includes a woodland burial area planted with young oak trees on the south-west perimeter; this was established in the late-C20 and is divided from the main part of the cemetery by a bank and hedge.

REFERENCES

Brooks C, Mortal Remains (1989), 129

Perriam D R, Carlisle: an illustrated history (1992), 58

Brooks C, English Historic Cemeteries, (English Heritage theme study 1994), 73

Carlisle Cemetery a Walker's Guide, guide leaflet, (Carlisle City Council 1998)

Maps

OS 6" to 1 mile: 2nd edition published 1901

OS 25" to 1 mile: 2nd edition published 1901; 3rd edition published 1925

Archival items

Denis Perriam, handwritten notes (nd), (Carlisle Local History Library)

List of newspaper references, typescript (nd), (Carlisle Local History Library)

REASONS FOR DESIGNATION

Dalston Road Cemetery is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

* Dalston Road Cemetery is a good example of an early High Victorian (1855) public cemetery for a provincial town in formal style by the City Surveyor, Hugh McKie, complimented by a late C19 extension in similar style (1880s).

* The Gothic structures, designed by local architects J W H & J M Hay, form a notable ensemble and include offices, lodges and chapels.

* The cemetery layout and structures survive intact, with notable survival of C19 planting including evergreen trees and shrubs.

* Social interest is expressed in an artistically rich variety of C19 monuments including many Carlisle worthies and a pauper burial area with few monuments.

Description written: September 2001

Amended: November 2001

Edited: December 2009

Features
  • Water Course
  • Description: The Fairy Beck runs east/west across the site.
  • Boundary Wall
  • Description: A brick wall alongside Richardson Street, formerly with cast-iron railings.
  • Hedge
  • Description: A beech hedge.
  • Railings
  • Description: Iron railings divide the southern boundary from agricultural land.
  • Building
  • Description: The former curator's house and offices.
  • Entrance
  • Description: The principal entrance is at the centre of the north boundary where the former curator's house and offices are ranged on either side of an archway.
  • Entrance
  • Description: Another entrance with a gate and gate piers.
  • Entrance
  • Description: A pedestrian entrance with stone gate piers.
  • Path
  • Description: A central pattern of axial paths.
  • Chapel (featured building)
  • Description: The Nonconformist chapel the Anglican chapel are in Early English style, of red brick with stone dressings, and have bellcotes.
  • Avenue
  • Description: An avenue of clipped yews with flower beds alongside it.
  • Greenhouse
  • Description: On the east side of the entrance buildings there are greenhouses, shown on the 1901 OS map.
  • Latest Date:
  • Sculpture
  • Description: Two sweet chestnut trees, left in situ, were carved with figures of a squirrel and an owl by Linda Watson in 1996-7.
  • Earliest Date:
  • Latest Date:
  • Terrace
  • Description: A terrace immediately east of the Anglican chapel.
  • Ornamental Bridge
  • Description: The Beck is crossed by three bridges, the central one of stone with a stone parapet and the other two with cast-iron railings.
  • Tomb
  • Description: The most striking memorial was designed by R W Billings, to commemorate the architect Peter Nicholson.
  • Earliest Date:
  • Latest Date:
Gate Lodge
Access & Directions

Access Contact Details

The site is open daily from 8am.

Directions

On the south-west side of Carlisle.
History

Detailed History

The following is from the Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest. For the most up-to-date Register entry, please visit the The National Heritage List for England (NHLE):

www.historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list

HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT

Carlisle Joint Burial Board purchased land on Spital Moor in 1854 and a plan was prepared by the City Surveyor, Hugh McKie in 1855 (Perriam, nd). Lodges and chapels were erected in 1855-6 to the designs of J W H & J M Hay. The cost was £14,000. The site was extended to the south of the Fairy Beck in 1885-7 (Brooks 1989) and again to the south in the mid to late-C20.

Period

  • Victorian (1837-1901)
Contact
References

References