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An Extraordinary Order: The Little Temple at Temple Newsam

Article Index

  1. An Extraordinary Order: The Little Temple at Temple Newsam
  2. Background
  3. Description
  4. Commentary: Context
  5. Commentary: Precedents from Architectural History
  6. Commentary: Purity of Style
  7. Commentary: Non-Architectural Models
  8. Designer: Possible Designers
  9. Designer: Other Hypotheses
  10. Designer: The Model Used
  11. Condition
  12. Conclusions
  13. Appendix 1
  14. Appendix 2
  15. References
  16. Illustrations
  17. All Pages

List of illustrations

All of the illustrations are included as numerals boxed [ ] in text. Where website use of a copyright image has been refused, the reference location has been retained below, for information. To see a full gallery of illustrations to accompany this article, click here.

1. Capability Brown’s Plan for the works at Temple Newsam, 1762. See in Temple Newsam Guide p.83

2. Distant view of the Little Temple in the woods, looking east from the house. See in Temple Newsam Guide p.3

3. The Little Temple, from the north, with cage and adjacent Beech tree, July 2013. Michael L Devenish (MLD) Photo

4. The Little Temple, south side, July 2013. MLD Photo

5. The Little Temple, north side, plinths and bases, July 2013. MLD Photo

6. The Little Temple, rear (east side), timber pediment, July 2013. MLD Photo

7. The Little Temple, vent slots in pediment front, July 2013. MLD Photo

8. The Little Temple, west front, columns and pediment, July 2013. MLD Photo

9. The Little Temple, west front, column bases and plinths, July 2013. MLD Photo

10. The Little Temple, column capital, shaft top and timber entablature corner, July 2013. MLD Photo

11. Egyptian Palmiform capital. See in  J Rykwert OAHIP p167

12. The Little Temple, west front, “Araeostyle”, July 2013. MLD Photo

13. Typical Corinthian Order capital and entablature, from Palladio’s “I Quattro Libri…”  as in I Ware 1738 English edition, plate XXIV

14. “Augustine Hermitage” folly, from William Wright’s “Grotesque Architecture or Rural Amusement” 1767,  Brotherton Library, University of Leeds

15. Part of Courtyard elevation of the King’s Apartments for the projected Whitehall Palace in 1620s. Inigo Jones, as drawn by William Kent, and published by John Vardy in 1744. The illustration shows just three bays at first floor and parapet, to be above a larger ground floor with similar embellishments. This would have been a small part of a 32-bay circular courtyard, itself only about a tenth of the palace by the Thames. Brotherton Library, University of Leeds

16. “Tree Columns”, by Philibert de l’Orme LHS, and by Donato Bramante, the loggia of Basilica of St Ambrogio, Milan RHS.  See in J Rykwert OAHIP p 98

17. “Britannic Order”, by Robert Adam, in JS Curl EAT p 59

18. “Ammonite Order”, Old Kent Road, London, 1820s  from JS Curl EAT p 13

19. “Agricultural Order”, by WJ Donthorn for Thomas Coke Memorial Column at Holkham, Norfolk. JS Curl EAT p 8

20. “measuring the (correct!) Corinthian Order” in Rome.  Drawing by H Parke, c 1818. Postcard, Trustees of the Sir John Soane Museum

21. Robert Wood & James Dawkins “Ruins of Palmyra” 1753, Corinthian Order: pilaster, capital, entablature with acorn frieze. Brotherton Library, University of Leeds

22. Tower of the Winds, Athens. Bannister Fletcher AHoAotCM, 17th ed 1961 p 141

23. Tower of the Winds, Athens, detail of Order. A Stratton TOoA 1931, plate XII

24.  The Primitive Hut, frontispiece from M-A Laugier “Essai sur l’architecture” 1757,         From Wolfgang Hermann L&ECFT 1962, plate 4

25. St Nikolaikirche, Leipzig, interior column, classicized 1784 on Gothic from 12/16th century, Wikipedia Commons image

26. Temple of the Four Winds, Castle Howard, by John Vanbrugh. Postcard, W Scott

27. Ionic Temple, Rievaulx Terraces, by Thomas Robinson. 1758  photo for EH by D Garbutt, Images Of England website

28. Temple of Lead Lads, Bramham Park 1750s, by J Paine. Photo for EH by D Carr, Images Of England website

29. Bath House, Arnos Castle, Bristol by (unknown).  From Barbara Jones F&G p 64 (possibly a variation of B Langley’s Second Gothic Order?)

30. Sir James Hall: “Origins of Gothic Architecture”, See in J Rykwert OAHIP p 83

31. Thomas Chippendale, “Bed Pillars”, type c on Plate XXXIV from “The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker’s Director” 1762  (possibly also following B Langley?)

32. Silver Candlesticks, by John Barbe, 1765, item 174 in J Lomax BSATNALH 1999 p 157  (possibly following B Langley?)

33. Silver Candlesticks, by Robert Adam, 1767, item 175  in J Lomax BSATNALH 1999 p 158

34. Silver Candlesticks, by Edward Wakelin, 1771, item 176 in J Lomax BSATNALH 1999 p 160

35. Lancelot “Capability” Brown, portrait by Nathaniel Dance c 1769.  National Portrait Gallery, and Wikipedia Commons image.

36. Charles Ingram, 9th Viscount Irwin, and Frances Ingram, his wife, portraits by Benjamin Wilson. See in Temple Newsam Guide p 54

37. Batty Langley “Ancient Architecture Restored…etc” 1742/47  Plate X “The Fourth Order of the Gothick Architecture”  Brotherton Library, University of Leeds

38. Batty Langley “Ancient Architecture Restored…etc” 1742/47  Plate XII “A Second Gothick Entablature for Order IV”  Brotherton Library, University of Leeds

39. Batty Langley, portrait engraving, by J Carwitham. 1741. Google magnoliabox.

40. The Little Temple, 2013, south corner and base, damage and erosion. MLD Photo

41. The Little Temple, 2013, west plinth, erosion and nearby tree. MLD Photo

42. The Little Temple, 2013, south wall, damaged column and render. MLD Photo