Use Places & People to search over 6,600 parks and gardens in the UK and 2,100 biographies of people associated with them. Image location: Bedgebury National Pinetum

Learn about the rich heritage of parks and gardens in Topics.
Image location: Powis Castle

Follow News & Events, updated regularly with the latest information affecting historic parks and gardens. Image location: Sheffield Botanical Gardens

Visit the Schools for ideas and activities to encourage the interest of children and young people in their local parks. Image location: Trentham

Join us as a volunteer and Research & Record historic parks and gardens in your area.
Image location: Cirencester Abbey

View the Illustrated Glossary which provides definitions and accompanying images for terms and concepts associated with historic parks and gardens. Image location: Pannett Park

The Domesday book shows Horstede and Broadhurst being held by William of Cahaignes (Keynes), the Norman lord who took over the land from the Saxon Ulueva.. The family remained in occupation until 1276 (two different dates are given for the marriage) when Joan de Cahaignes married Roger de Leukenore (Lewknor) and the estate passed to the Lewknors and thence to the Barantynes, the Michelbournes and others.

The Glynde Archive in East Sussex Record Office (GLY/2731) is particularly useful in showing the various ownerships of Broadhurst Manor. Drewe (Drury) Barantyne of Brodehurst (or Brodhurste) in Horsted Keynes was resident in 1564. His father William was the third husband of Sir Roger Lewknor's daughter Jane and Broadhurst formed part of the marriage settlement in 1533.

In 1637 Sir Richard Michelbourne was the owner and in 1641 Broadhurst was sold by Sir William Michelbourne to John Ironmonger of Ringmer, Gent. In 1651 a Mortgage Lease for 500 years was granted to William Michelbourne of Stanmer to Harbert Hay of Glyndebourne and Margaret Hay, his fourth daughter. Edward Lightmaker (1620-1657), a brewer and citizen of London then purchased the estate in 1655. The Final Concord notes a barn, mill, iron furnace, garden, 30 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow and 20 acres of pasture in Horsted Keynes. Sapphira Lightmaker, his widow, of the parish of St Bartholomew the Great, London inherited the estate and took out a mortgage of £1,590. In 1671 the estate was leased to Edward Haberfield of North Petherton in Somerset. Mrs Lightmaker died in 1704 aged 81 and Broadhurst Manor passed to her son, Edward Lightmaker, Gent, of Middle Temple, London who died in 1708.

In 1710-11 William Pigott and his family were living at Broadhurst Manor. The Pigotts were related to the Lightmakers by marriage. (Osbourne family papers, www.users.globalnet.co.uk). William died in 1722 and a Probate copy of his Will of 1722 shows that he had left the estate to his widow Jane. Their only surviving child, Catharine, was the heiress (tablet in St Giles Church). Catharine married Thomas Pigott and they had a son, Thomas. The estate passed in 1734 to Granado Pigott by settlement and on his death in 1756 he left the estate to Thomas Pigott (1738-1793) who died aged 55, presumably that same son of Catharine and Thomas Pigott (tablet in St Giles Church).

In 1764 the Lease and Release for the estate was conveyed to William Pearce for the sum of £10,700. We know that the subsequent estate map of 1764 was surveyed by Thomas Bateman for William Pearce of St Margarets, Westminster. By 1771 the ownership was transferred to Robert, fourth Lord Trevor with money left for the purpose by his brother, Richard Trevor, Bishop of Durham for the sum of £9,900 (Viscountess Frances Wolseley, Smaller Manor Houses of Sussex, page 76). The Lease and Release of land at Horsted Keynes included the Great Stable built by Granado Pigott. By 1777, perhaps after the fire that destroyed two thirds of the house, the estate had passed (by lease?) to George Brooks and his wife Ann of Green Street, Hanover Square, London. From then on, the estate remained in the Trevor family until the late 19th century. In 1839 the Tithe map shows the landowner to be Henry Otway Trevor and the tenant to be Anne Friend.

According to Frances Wolseley, the main part of the house was demolished between 1771 and 1785 after a fire, leaving just one wing of the original building. Archaeological excavation has shown the outline of the main building and the tiny chapel. For many years subsequently, the Manor was used as a farm. In 1872, Broadhurst Manor was the residence of General the Rt Hon Henry Brand. It then passed to his nephew, Lord Dacre, later Viscount Hampden (the well-known Speaker of the House). In the 1880s it was purchased by Charles B O Clarke who continued to let the land to tenant farmers, the Standens, and used the woodland for shooting. In 1923, Broadhurst was left to John P S Clarke, who rebuilt some of the Manor and lived in it as his family home, recreating a part of the garden. It has had a number of owners in the last 40 years or so and at present the Manor is a private family home, with the house and gardens being restored. The rest of the estate is still being farmed by the Clarke family.

THE LIGHTMAKERS OF BROADHURST MANOR

The late 17th century in Horsted Keynes is particularly well documented, thanks to the journal or day book of Giles Moore, the Rector from 1655 to 1679 at the time that Broadhurst Manor was owned by the Lightmakers. Edward Lightmaker was a resident of London and his business was as a brewer in Whitechapel which at this time was a centre for the trade in London. His wife Sapphira (sometimes known as Susan) died in1704 aged 81 and her memorial tablet in St Giles Church in Horsted Keynes states ‘Here lies the body of Sapphira Lightmaker....'. Internet information suggests that she was buried in Bunhill Fields, London, a non-conformist burial ground but the dates don't tally. She is noted earlier as a resident of the parish of St Bartholomew the Great, adjacent to Smithfield.

The memorial table on the south wall of St Giles attests to her good character: She was a devout woman and a Mother in Israel, A widow indeed, and (nothwithstanding Solicitations to a 2nd marriage) lived so 44 years. (Note: there appear to be variations of the spelling of Sapphira.) However, Giles Moore's diary shows a rather different view of his dealings with her. The Rector writes on 23 June 1664:

All my charges in and about repayring my chancel in June 1664,

came to £1 16s 1d which I payed out of my own purse, all of which

was occasioned by and through the default and neglect of

Mistress Sapphira Lightmaker in not keeping up her chancel:

likewise I afterwards mended the bridge towards Broadhurst,

paying 2s to Gower and his man for a dayes worke, and affording

as much timbers as they judged worth 2s more, for which shee

would not allow mee a penny when I moved her unto it, no, not one

fathing! Though she stripped a good part of my church for her leads.

Edward and Sapphira's son, another Edward (1644-1708) of Middle Temple, London, inherited Broadhurst and endowed St Giles School in 1708, at that time a National School for 20 children www.sussex-opc.org/Pigot1840).

Edward and Sapphira also had a daughter Elizabeth born in 1648. Aged 17 she married Thomas Siderfin, aged 28 of Middle Temple, London, third son of Thomas Siderfin of Luxborough, Somerset www.archive.org: Allegations for Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury, London, 1543-1869).

Robert Leighton (1611?-1684), Archbishop of Glasgow and Sapphira's brother, was a man of saintly character who retired to Broadhurst Manor in 1674 for the last ten years of his life. He was buried in St Giles Church Chancel aged 74. Unfortunately the Chancel later had to be demolished as its condition had deteriorated.

Much has been written about him and he left his large collection of books to form a library, The Leighton, the oldest purpose-built library in Scotland. In his will, Leighton left a sum of money for the building of the library for use by the clergy of Dunblane diocese. He also left £100 to pay for a librarian and Sapphire and her son Edward contributed a further £300 towards its support.

The total cost of the library was £1623. 2s 6d. His books were transported by horse and cart and sea before being installed in the completed library. The building is a two storey construction with the books situations in a single room on the first floor accessed by the original external staircase. The lower floor, or undercroft, originally functioned as the living quarters for the first librarian. Still to be seen in the library are ‘Twelve chairs of turkie red lether', part of the original bequest http://www.leightonlibrary.org.uk/).

Assuming no changes to the building in the 1700s, the Manor was at that time a west-facing Elizabethan house in the traditional ‘E', with its own chapel. The enclosing walls in front of the house form a substantial rectangular courtyard.

ESTATE, GARDENS AND GROUNDS

A report on the estate in 1744, Measure of Arable Land, Meadow and Pasture, Broadhurst Farm (ESRO GLY/2731) noted a total size of 200 acres while in the ownership of Granado Pigott. Full details are given as to the field names and acreages.

In her book, Smaller Manor Houses of Sussex, Frances Wolseley wrote about a newly discovered plan and included a description of the gardens. It seemed likely that the estate map might well be with one of the previous owners, as it was not in either Record Office. Following some research, it was found at Glynde Place, the family having been owners of Broadhurst Manor in the 19th century. It is now in the East Sussex Record Office.

This exceptionally fine map shows the Broadhurst estate in the ownership of William Pearce, Esq, in 1764 and the surveyor to be Thomas Bateman. The main entrance is marked by a lime avenue of about 140 yards leading to the walls of the courtyard. The pleasure grounds contain a bowling green to the north of the house, beyond which was a terrace known as the Archery Butts, shown on the map as planted with trees in the style of the early 18th century but laid to grass by the 20th century. To the north and east sides of the Butts was the raised Bishop's Walk, so named after Archbishop Leighton. The east end of this walk has a square viewing point beyond which stood a group of venerable yews (Frances Wolseley and Rev Stanton Eardley), some of which are still there but most probably replacement plantings when the gardens were restored in the early 20th century. An avenue of trees edges the east raised walk. East of the bowling green was what appears to be a series of six terraces planted with trees (orchard?) beyond which is woodland.

A walled garden runs the length of the east front of the house, four grass plats of equal size being planted centrally with a single (topiary?) tree. Beyond this garden is Brewhouse Pond, a substantial stretch of water, crossed by a path separating it from Upper Pond to the north. The series of lakes leading south west from Brewhouse Pond were known from the 17th century (and also so named on the estate map) as the fish stews are still extant and to the north of these is the three acre Old Hop Garden. To the immediate south of the house and the grass plats is the walled kitchen garden. The park is shown beyond and to the south east of the house and Brewhouse Pond, which together with the Old Hop Garden shows a suitable appreciation of the importance of beer. An interesting conundrum is the Tennis Court, which must be connected with real tennis, as the more modern game that we enjoy today became popular in the 1870s.

A report by Thomas Yeoman entitled Observations on an Estate Lately Purchased by William Pearce Esquire at Horsted Keynes in the County of Sussex is dated to June 1764 and must have accompanied the estate map. He suggested taking down the Mansion House and offices, the materials of which could then be used for repairing the farm houses. A woodward (sic) should be appointed to protect the woods and coppices from tenants and others grazing their cattle there which caused great damage to young underwood and timber. He further suggests improving the husbandry as farmers in the area tended to be backward in changing grass seeds, turnipings (sic) etc.

An undated book of reference to the estate map of Broadhurst Manor then known as Farm (ESRO Acc 5767 6/5) shows the land holding in some detail and gives a total area of 370 acres, the land being given mainly to arable and pasture meadows, together with woods and, ponds. A date of 1872 and inscribed The Rt Hon H Brand is shown but the document appears to be much earlier in style. The house was noted with outbuildings of a barn, stables, granary, malthouse and oast, with courts, yards and gardens. The park measured 26 acres. Other farms within the ownership were Sinderhill Farm, The Odynes Farm, Ludwells Farm, the Mill and grounds, Whites Farm and copyholds.

THE PARK

The clearest evidence of the park at Broadhurst Manor is on the 1764 estate map. The land rises steeply at this point and the two roughly open and square divided areas of grassland lie directly south east of the house. They run adjacent to Brewhouse Pond and are labelled as The Park, measuring 7.0.4 acres and 6.1.30 acres. This does not equate to the 26 acres stated in previous documentation. A further area of light woodland (containing a marl pit) lie immediately to the south east of the park and could well have been included, measuring 6 acres, giving a total of 19.1.34 acres. Large areas of woodland named as ‘warren' lie further to the south.

A report on the Estate (ESRO GLY/2731) of 1744 gives the names of Little Park and Park Rough. Great Lawn appears in this account as it does in the 1872 account while in the ownership of Rt Hon. H. Brand but this appears to be Lawn Meadow on the 1764 map and to the west of the house. This may correspond to Great Plat on the Tithe map.

The Tithe map of 1839 (TD E 30) allow us to co-ordinate the field names with the boundaries in the 1764 estate map. The land was tenanted by Anne Friend and the field names correspond as follows:

Park Meadow and Low Park are the areas nearest to the house. The wooded area appears cleared but is known as Park Pit and immediately to the south again is Rough Park. On the estate map this area was known as Great Brickhouse Field. Taking the total acreage and including Rough Park, this gives a total of 23 acres.

The Ordnance Survey 1st Edition map of 1879 shows little changes in the field boundaries mentioned above.

THE 20th CENTURY

The gardens were restored by the Clarke family in the early 20th century to the plans shown on the 18th century estate map for Broadhurst Manor. The formal grass plats to the south of the house were planted with roses in the style of the time.

Much of the simplicity of the garden, together with the obvious relationship with much earlier times and the names given to the various components would lead one to believe that the garden at Broadhurst is of 17th century origin and with little in the way of subsequent overlays. The 20th century restoration gives us an excellent view of how the garden looked before the fire that caused the house to lose its importance for 150 years.

Material contributed by Sally Walker

References

Sussex Archaeological Collection, vols, 3, 9, 11, 62, 63

Ward, Joan, The Road to St Giles Danehill Parish Historical Magazine Vol 4 No. 4 1991

Wolseley, Viscountess, Some of the Smaller Manor Houses of Sussex, The Medici Society, London and Boston, MCMXXV

Wolseley Collection, Vol 35, Horsted Keynes, Hove Public Library

Stenton Eardley, Rev F, Horsted Keynes Sussex The Church and Parish of St Giles 1939

WSRO The Journal of Giles Moore 1656-1679 PAR384/6/1

Hampden, Viscount Estate Map of Broadhurst Manor 1764 (now in East Sussex Record Office)

Maunsell A, My forefathers, their history & traditions, 1990 Chapter 1,  www.archive.org/stream/

Strong, Roy, The Renaissance Garden in England Thames and Hudson 1979 ch 6,7,8

Site timeline

1771 to 1785: According to Frances Wolseley, the main part of the house was demolished between 1771 and 1785 after a fire, leaving just one wing of the original building.

Features

building

Listed outbuildings include the barn and cartshed/granary.

Designation status: The National Heritage List for England: Listed Building Designation Grade II

lake

garden wall

Designation status: The National Heritage List for England: Listed Building Designation Grade II

pond