Summary

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Brief description of site

The parkland at Brockwood Park dates originally from the late-18th century with significant phases of tree planting in the 19th and mid-20th centuries. Development in the latter period included the creation of more areas of garden interest including an Edwardian rose garden. Features include a walled garden, an arboretum and many mature parkland plantings.

Brief history of site

Brockwood Park came into being from 1769 onwards when farmland was transformed into a landscape park with scenic views. Nineteenth-century planting included specimen cedars, beech avenues, and an arboretum featuring redwoods. During the mid-20th century the arboretum was developed and a rose garden and other garden areas laid out.
Since 1969 the house and about 16 hectares of land have been owned by a school, which emphasizes ecological principles in the management of the grounds.

Location information:

Address: Brockwood Park, Bramdean, Alresford, Hampshire , SO24 0LQ

Locality: Winchester

Local Authorities:

Hampshire; Winchester; Bramdean and

Historical County: Hampshire

OS Landranger Map Sheet Number: 185 Grid Ref: SU625264
Latitude: 51.0336 Longitude: -1.11005

Key information:

Form of site: landscape park

Purpose of site: Ornamental

Context or principal building: education

Site first created: 1769

Main period of development: Mid 18th century

Survival: Extant

Site Size (Hectares): 16

Description

Brockwood Park is on Hampshire County Council's Archaeology and Historic Buildings Register (site ID 1501) as a pre-1810 Park Garden.

Site designation(s)

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

The National Heritage List for England: Listed Building Grade II Reference Brockwood Park

Principal building:

Manor House Created 1769

Designation status: The National Heritage List for England: Listed Building Grade II Reference Brockwood Park

External web site link: http://www.brockwood.org.uk/index.htm

History

Richard Smith, a West India merchant, bought Lys Farm Bramdean in 1769 and began the process by which it was transformed into a gentleman's estate. He built the central part of the new house on a site that commanded fine scenic views towards the Meon valley.

In the next one hundred years successive owners planted trees, both native and exotic species, and gradually converted the meadowland into parkland. Colonel Greenwood and his family, in particular, created an arboretum and planted copper beeches along the estate boundaries. These are still a distinctive feature of the landscape. A ha-ha defined the boundary of the lawn within the park.

At its greatest extent at the end of the 19th century the estate is said to have covered 3200 acres (about 1295 hectares) and included the neighbouring Woodcote Manor.

In the mid-20th century the parkland underwent further change when Lady Royden lived there. Not only did she make improvements to park features, such as the arboretum, but she also created new areas of interest, principally a rose garden that she designed herself. In the arboretum, then known as The Fuzz or The Firs and now as The Grove, Lady Royden planted rhododendrons, flowering bulbs and exotic trees such as the handkerchief tree (Davidia involucrata). She kept a meticulous diary of her gardening activities, in particular itemising all her tree and shrub planting.

From about 1956 to 1968 the grounds underwent a period of neglect until the property was bought by the Krishnamurti Foundation, who set up a school there and renovated and simpified the gardens. Inevitably there have been some changes to the estate to accommodate school activities but the historic importance of the park landscape has not been neglected. The owners are conscious of their responsibilities in this respect and are concerned with the preservation and renewal of the park. They also know that their students benefit from studying in such a peaceful and beautiful environment. Principles of wildlife conservation and organic food production play a significant part in the current management of the estate.

Site timeline

1800: The Earl of Malmesbury plants the first cedars of Lebanon.

1834 to 1864: Colonel Greenwood plants beech and copper beech avenues and a pinetum to the north of the house.

1860 to 1872: Land is cordoned off for an arboretum and planted with redwoods, oaks and firs.

1910 to 1926: A water tower with a belvedere is built.

1933 to 1956: The Roydens plant parkland trees and develop the arboretum and garden areas.

1969: The Krishnamurti Foundation buy the property.

Features

ha-ha

Feature created: After 1769

rose garden

In the mid-20th century, Lady Royden designed a new rose garden with a geometric layout of beds. The internal layout has changed several times since then.

lawn

Feature created: After 1769

pergola

kitchen garden

Walled productive garden managed on organic principles and growing vegetables, fruit and herbs.

specimen tree

Cedars of Lebanon planted by the Earl of Malmesbury around 1800.

grove

Feature created: After 1860

An arboretum including many acid-loving plants such as rhododendrons and camellias, with a variety of native and exotic trees featuring mid-19th-century plantings of redwoods.

tree avenue

Feature created: 1834

Mid-19th-century avenue of beech trees leading to the Lodge, with late 20th-century replacements.

References

Organisations associated with this site

Hampshire Gardens Trust

Historic England Role: Designating Authority

Sources of information

Contributor or Recorder Hampshire Gardens Trust

Images

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