The Walled Kitchen Garden
Glasshouses, frames and pits
Glass structures played a crucial role in the intensive production of vegetables and fruit. By the 19th century a huge range of glasshouses was available for the production of every conceivable type of fruit, vegetable and flower.
Vineries, pine-pits, peach houses, forcing houses, cold frames and pits were all used in the quest to produce out-of-season food. Every walled kitchen garden would have a range of glass, from one or two in the most modest establishments to dozens in the grander gardens.
The glasshouse was a development of the 16th-century orangery, a rather inefficient structure for the over-wintering of what were known as ‘greens' - tender evergreen plants, including orange trees. Indeed one could say that the technology of glasshouses was driven by the introduction of three fruits: the orange, the pineapple and the grape (Campbell 2005, p.151). Orangeries, however, are outside the scope of this article.